The Reilly Center is pleased to announce its first annual List of Emerging Ethical Dilemmas and Policy Issues in Science and Technology (2013)!
Our goal is simply to present a list of items for scientists and laypeople alike to consider in the coming months and years, as new technologies develop. We will feature one of these issues on our website every month in 2013, giving readers more information, questions to ask, and resources to consult.
Click here to see the February profile on "adaptation to climate change."
Click here to see the March profile on "data collection and privacy."
Click here to see the April profile on "autonomous systems."
Click here to see the May profile on "personal genetic testing/personalized medicine."
We have provided resources for further reading below each issue. The links will take you away from the Reilly Center site. The Reilly Center does not endorse the ideas in the resources we link to, but rather aims to give a thorough background to some of the ethical issues involved. If you have suggestions for more resources, please e-mail them to Jessica Baron at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Reilly Center's 1st Annual List of Emerging Ethical Dilemmas and Policy Issues in Science and Technology for 2013
The Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values generated this list with the help of Reilly Fellows, other Notre Dame experts, and friends of the center.
Visit our online poll to vote for the issue you find most compelling or important!
Personal genetic tests/personalized medicine (click here to see the profile)
Within the last ten years, the creation of fast, low-cost genetic sequencing has given the public direct access to genome sequencing and analysis, with little or no guidance from physicians or genetic counselors on how to process the information. Genetic testing has resulted in huge public health successes (for example, for diseases that can be prevented or helped by early intervention), but also creates a new set of moral, legal, ethical, and policy issues surrounding the use of these tests. If the testing is useful, how do we provide equal access? What are the potential privacy issues and how do we protect this very personal and private information? Which genetic abnormalities warrant some kind of intervention? How do we ensure that the information provided by genome analysis is correct (especially in the case of at-home tests)? Are we headed towards a new era of therapeutic intervention to increase quality of life, or a new era of eugenics?
What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing?
At-Home Genetic Tests: A Healthy Dose of Skepticism May Be the Best Prescription
Buyer Beware of Home DNA Tests
Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A New View
Hacking into medical devices
The US Government Accountability Office has released a report claiming that implanted medical devices, such as pacemakers, are susceptible to hackers. Barnaby Jack, a hacker and director of embedded device security at IOActive Inc., recently demonstrated the vulnerability of a pacemaker by breaching the security of the wireless device from his laptop and reprogramming it to deliver an 830-volt shock. Because many devices are programmed to allow doctors easy access in case reprogramming is necessary in an emergency, the design of many of these devices is not geared toward security. We don’t yet have evidence of a hacker breaching the security of a medical device with malicious intent, although we now know that it’s possible, and over the last few months, government and health care agencies have been discussing the best ways to protect patients.
In three states – Nevada, Florida, and California – it is now legal for Google to operate its driverless cars. A human in the vehicle is still required, but not at the controls. Google’s goal is to create a fully automated vehicle that is safer and more effective than a human-operated vehicle and they plan to marry this idea with the concept of the Zipcar, fleets of automobiles shared by a group of users on an as-needed basis, paying annual fees, per-mileage charges, and insurance costs. The driverless Zipcar will transform not just the way we travel, but also the entire urban/suburban landscape, and our social and economic structures. The ethics of automation and equality of access for people of different income levels are just a taste of the difficult ethical, legal, and policy questions we will need to address.
Scientists are attempting to use 3-D printing to create everything from architectural models to human organs. While the technology still lags behind the hype (in other words, we’re not getting Star Trek-style replicators anytime soon), we could be looking at a future when we can print personalized pharmaceuticals or home-printed guns and explosives. On November 29, 2012, Staples Office Center announced that they would begin providing 3-D printing services to their customers, starting next year, in the Netherlands and Belgium. So for now, 3-D printing is largely the realm of artists and designers, but we can easily envision a future where 3-D printers are affordable and patterns abound for products both benign and malicious, and that cut out the manufacturing sector completely.
Factory @ Home: The Emerging Economy of Personal Fabrication
Print Me a Stradivarius: How a New Manufacturing Technology Will Change the World
Cartilage Made Easy With Novel Hybrid Printer
FYI: Is It Legal to Print a 3-D Handgun?
How 3D Printing Will Obsolete the Economy of Scarcity and the Corporations That Rely On It
Adaptation to climate change (click here to see the profile)
The differential susceptibility of peoples around the world to climate change warrants an ethical discussion. We need to identify effective and safe ways to help people deal with the effects of climate change, as well as learn to manage and manipulate wild species and nature in order to preserve biodiversity. Some of these adaptation strategies might be highly technical (e.g. building sea walls to stem off sea level rise), but others are social and cultural (e.g., changing agricultural practices).
Climate Change Adaptation (from the Notre Dame Environmental Change Initiative)
A Hunt for Seeds to Save Species, Perhaps By Helping Them Move
Managed Relocation: Integrating the Scientific, Regulatory, and Ethical Challenges
Adapting to Climate Change: Facing the Consequences
US Council on Environmental Quality - Climate Change Adaptation Task Force
Low-quality and counterfeit pharmaceuticals
Until recently, detecting low-quality and counterfeit pharmaceuticals required access to complex testing equipment, often unavailable in developing countries where these problems abound. The enormous amount of trade in pharmaceutical intermediaries and active ingredients raise a number of issues, from the technical (improvement in manufacturing practices and analytical capabilities) to the ethical and legal (for example, India ruled in favor of manufacturing life-saving drugs, even If it violates US patent law).
Autonomous systems (click here to see profile)
Machines (both for peaceful purposes and for war fighting) are increasingly evolving from human-controlled, to automated, to autonomous, with the ability to act on their own without human input. Autonomous systems will continue to emerge in a number of areas in the coming decades, from robots on the battlefield, to autonomous robotic surgical devices. As these systems operate without human control and are designed to function and make decisions on their own, the ethical, legal, social, and policy implications have grown exponentially. Who is responsible for the actions undertaken by autonomous systems? If robotic technology can potentially reduce the number of human fatalities, is it the responsibility of scientists to design these systems?
Department of Defense Directive (Autonomy in Weapons System)
What Human Right's Watch's "Case Against Killer Robots" Gets Wrong About Military Reality
Robots at War: Scholars Debate the Ethical Issues
Human-animal hybrids (chimeras)
The idea of a chimera comes straight out of Greek mythology, but so far scientists have kept human-animal hybrids on the cellular level. According to some, even more modest experiments involving animal embryos and human stem cells violate human dignity and blur the line between species. But scientists have received support (particularly in the UK) from both the government and the public, after explaining the process as well as their (so far benign) research goals. Is interspecies research the next frontier in understanding humanity and curing disease, or a slippery slope, rife with ethical dilemmas, toward creating new species?
Ensuring access to wireless and spectrum
Mobile wireless connectivity is having a profound effect on society in both developed and developing countries. The penetration of smart phones and tablets has led to consistent doubling of mobile data usage on an annual basis, which is putting tremendous pressure on telecommunication networks and the government bodies that regulate the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. These technologies are completely transforming how we communicate, conduct business, learn, form relationships, navigate, and entertain ourselves. At the same time, government agencies increasingly rely on radio spectrum for their critical missions. This confluence of wireless technology developments and societal needs present numerous challenges and opportunities for making the most effective use of the radio spectrum. We now need to have a policy conversation about how to make the most effective use of the precious radio spectrum, and to close the digital access divide for underserved (rural, low-income, developing areas) populations.
Notre Dame Wireless Institute
Wireless Communications and Radio Spectrum Policy
How Politics Inflame the "Spectrum Crisis"
Proceedings and Initiatives of the Spectrum Policy Task Force
A World Government for the Internet? Not So Fast
Data collection and privacy (click here to see the profile)
We (sometimes) think about privacy when we post something to a webpage or social media. But do we do consider the massive amounts of data we give to commercial entities when we use store discount cards or order goods via the Internet? Your healthcare data is often available to physicians and research entities and insurance companies and is not protected by privacy or anonymity laws in every case. Now that microprocessors and permanent memory are inexpensive technology, we need to think about the kinds of information that should be collected and retained. Should we create a diabetic insulin implant that could notify your doctor or insurance company when you make poor diet choices, and should that decision make you ineligible for certain types of medical treatment? Should cars be equipped to monitor speed and other measures of good driving, and should this data be subpoenaed by the authorities following a crash? These issues require appropriate policy discussions in order to bridge the gap between data collection and meaningful outcomes.
Pharmaceutical, surgical, mechanical, and neurological enhancements are already available for therapeutic purposes. But these same enhancements can be used to magnify human biological function beyond the societal norm. Where do we draw the line between therapy and enhancement? How do we justify enhancing human bodies when so many individuals still lack access to basic therapeutic medicine?
Human Enhancement and the Future of Work Report
Why Bioenhancement of Mathematical Ability is Ethically Important
Ethics in Public Policy Making: The Case of Human Enhancement
The Link Between War and Bioengineered Humans
Directorate General for Internal Policies: Science and Technology Options Assessment on Human Enhancement
The Wellcome Collections exhibit "Superhuman"